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For many, the Big Ben – the clock tower as it is commonly and erroneously known (it is actually the name of the bell inside) – is the most iconic image of London. A symbol of the Houses of Parliament, reminiscent of the debate in the rooms below, where 646 members and more than 700 bishops and Gentlemen loudly carry on the business of government. The nation expects to find midnight on December 31 to celebrate the start of each new year. Protesters against the state occasionally try to climb the 96m (315 feet) – and sometimes succeed.
Another name for the Parliament, the Palace of Westminster, alludes to the complex history of British democracy that has evolved over the centuries by the dominant domain of tribal chiefs, royalty and the Church in a government of elected representatives of the people. Thus, the medieval building that stood on the site until the 19th century, in which they were made the basis of the modern system of Edward I’s Model Parliament of 1295 was also the headquarters of British monarchs until 1530.
Survived the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 by a group of Catholics intent on blowing up the Protestant King James I in the Palace of Westminster was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1834. Westminster Hall, which dates back to 1097, has survived and is the oldest part of the building today.
William IV offered Buckingham Palace as a replacement, but the Parliament wanted to hang at the site of major river that William the Conqueror had made his base of nearly 800 years ago. Public debate on what the style should be used for the new building has been fierce. It should be a fitting emblem of a country with an empire on which “the sun never sets.” A neo-classical design, such as the White House or the U.S. Congress, was excluded because of connotations of revolutionary or a republican. In 1836, after studying 98 proposals, a Royal Commission chose Charles Barry’s plan for a Gothic palace that embody a welcome dose of conservatism.
Democracy in Britain has started to come of age in 1918 when the vote was given to all men 21 and women over 30, if women had to wait 10 years for equal rights. Even now continues to grow: in Tony Blair’s premiership, the power has been devolved to Scotland, Wales and Northem Ireland in 1999, while the shape of the Second Chamber, the House of Lords, is unstable.
UK residents can arrange free guided tours of Parliament for the whole year through their MP or a gentleman, visitors from abroad have to pay and can only tour during the summer when Parliament is in session, but may participate in discussions throughout the year. Both tours last about 75 minutes and includes the Houses of Commons and Lords debating, as well as the Queen’s Robing Room. The official opening of Parliament, where the reigning monarch presents the government’s plans for members of both the House of Lords and Commons, is a colorful ceremony usually takes place in November.
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London Bridge today is not the same London Bridge, which crosses the Thames when it was built. Peter, a priest and chaplain of St. Mary Colechurch, began the foundation of the original bridge in 1176 to replace a wooden bridge (expensive to maintain and repeatedly burned down), which was originally built by the Romans. The original London Bridge consisted of nineteen arches, each with an average length of 7 meters, and built on piers 6 feet wide. An early twentieth the bridge was crossed by a wooden drawbridge. With the construction of this bridge, a particular effect was discovered – the tide roared through the narrow arches every day with great force, which had been so dramatically affected that created a temporary 5-foot-high cataract every day, as it went in and out .. A new sport based on this nifty effect was “shooting the bridge” – slipping through the arches in a small boat when the tide was turning.
Pietro di Colechurch died in 1205, and his work was supplemented by three other citizens of London 1209. The bridge, already quite close to its function, it has become even closer (about 4 feet wide) where the shops and houses were built along both sides of the road right on the bridge itself, by 1358, 138 seats of activity were recorded in the tax lists. And, like almost all the old buildings of London, the shops were built so that the upper floors stretched over the road – finally, the bridge has become more like a long gallery full of shops, through which passengers and others flowed. One can only imagine the smell, the way to the shelter, no real drainage, and a lot of horses and people! The houses are built so that overhung the water as well as the track, and were anchored by tying them together along the road, with strong wooden arches. In 1580, water mills added to the general chaos of the bridge.
The bridge was not only a home and place of business, it was a defensible structure. More than once, its drawbridge was raised and the men who fought under his strong tower to repel the invaders and rebels, putting the wooden houses built on the bridge at some risk. Until after the Restoration Scotland, the bridge was often decorated with heads, quarters, or parts of the body of the executed, which had to be explained below. Not later than the year 1598, a German traveler counted over thirty heads.
But after both the bridge itself has become very dangerous for residents and travelers. Only three years after it was completed, a huge fire destroyed the buildings, killing perhaps 3,000 people when it jumped from one end of the bridge to the other, trapping wild fire-fighting the flames. The houses have been rebuilt in a hurry – and in 1282 five arches of the bridge collapsed under the weight of winter ice. But even they were rebuilt with their necessary buildings, and the bridge continued in London as the only crossing of the River Thames until 1750, when Westminster Bridge opened.
During this period, the engineer of Westminster Bridge was hired to repair and renew London Bridge. Redesign and repair is deemed necessary by the narrowness of the road, the huge bridge supports (which occupied about one fourth of the width of the river), and the dangerous sport of shooting and other dangers posed by the bridge deck. By 1762 the character of the bridge has been changed: all the houses were gone, the roadway was 14 feet wide, and the two central arches replaced by a large arc, allowing the transition much easier for larger boats.
Alas, this central arch has proved difficult to maintain, and in early 1800 a second bridge was built a few meters away. The original London Bridge was demolished in 1832. The new bridge was called Rennie’s Bridge. Designed by George Rennie and built by John Rennie, was composed of only five arches, with the central span reaching 46 meters. Rennie’s London Bridge has had a very strange end. It ‘lasted less than 140 years. Between 1968 and 1971, was dismantled and shipped across the Atlantic to the United States, where it was rebuilt in Lake Havasu City, where it still stands, crossing Lake Havasu, 255 miles south of Hoover Dam on the Colorado River. To see the London Bridge, the Londoners must fly 10,000 miles!
The current London Bridge is modern prestressed concrete with a central span of 104 meters.
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These “warnings”, “advice”, and “tricks” are offered to help make your Las Vegas Vacation as enjoyable, fast and easy to plan as much as possible. If this is your first trip to “Fabulous Las Vegas” or you are a veteran, you will find some useful tips and tricks here.
Las Vegas Travel Tips: First, the biggest mistake many travelers to Las Vegas to do when planning a trip is to book the cheapest air fare / hotel package “available anywhere”. These are offered worldwide by the local newspaper ad television special, e-mail spam. Warning!
Why? A low cost Las Vegas Vacation is good, we agree! But, you know almost all the hotels in Las Vegas two to three levels of quality of the rooms (or options)? Now also includes many of the five-star “great” many of these rooms are simply substandard, perhaps with a nice view of the air conditioning system! (This actually happened to me personally, and was it Loud!)
Things like old mattresses, no safes, old furniture, long walks to the casino, restraunts, shows, or even a taxi. Did you know there are monorail trains running right behind some of the rooms? How about a roller coaster right outside your window? And much more. Just remember “cheapest” is just that. Ask at the reception upon check-in exactly where your room is, look before you sign if possible.
We are not pushing for only high dollar rooms here, just get in the best quality your budget will allow the room, you will be very glad you did.
Why book your hotel first? Las Vegas is booked up an average of 94% per year, so plan ahead (at least 30 + days is recommended) to get the exact day you want, wherever you want, room quality you want. Moreover, it is usually less expensive to book well in advance. Did you know that Sunday through Thursday is less expensive? When you get your selected Las Vegas Hotel booked, then you can book a flight a day to fit in and out to fit YOUR schedule.
It makes sense does not it?
Once you get your Las Vegas Hotel booked first. Then you can book tickets for shows in Las Vegas, anytime. Be sure to check to see if your particular choice show, is not “dark” on your selected days. The holidays are a good example of dark days.
Then book your tour of Las Vegas. (If you have never experienced the thrill of a helicopter flying at night over “Glitter Gulch and Downtown”, or travel during the day over the Boulder Dam and Grand Canyon, this is something you will never forget!) Do not is expensive as you might think! Check our tours links for prices and times.
This is the world’s capital of fun, so allow yourself enough time to take as many attractions (dozens are free) as possible, it will make your Las Vegas Vacation much more memorable. If possible, book an extra night stay just to allow for a special tour of Las Vegas Las Vegas or a day of Golf.
Las Vegas gambling tips:
Gambling is the lifeblood of Las Vegas. You do not really think those billion dollar hotels were built by “winners” is not it? Set a daily budget for gambling and stick to it! It has a good chance of winning. Hundreds if not thousands of “Pay Jackpot Hand” shall be paid every day. Beware though, these chips, tokens and ticket-in/ticket-out seem too similar to “money” are not your real money! Stick to your budget! Did I mention?
Get a “players card” everywhere you go and use it, or if you are a “player table” to ask the pit boss to “rank” or “rate” you. They track your game and comp you accordingly with all kinds of free stuff. As meals, rooms, clothing, gift items limousine, shopping and even cash. These really help put the odds in your favor.
It seems that my budget is always too small, but try your best to set a reasonable daily goal and stick to it, do not draw on budget tomorrow! Just maybe you’ll walk a big winner! It happens every day. Remember the phrase: “On foot forward when”!
It is not my place to preach, but here are some useful tips Las Vegas treatment of his money. All that money in the casinos you see everywhere attracts some pretty shady characters (read Crooks!) The security is excellent, but there are always few, and it takes one to ruin a perfect holiday.
Las Vegas Security:
Ladies, bring or buy a small bag with a shoulder bag or waste bag, or fanny pack, something that is comfortable enough to keep on his person all the time. Never ever set your purse on the floor or next to a car, or on a stool next to you. This is a magnet for thieves! Keep that strap around your neck.
Most thieves work in pairs, one to distract you, the other grabbed her purse. Just a couple types of distractions they use are: one will drop a coin or dollar bill or two near you on the floor and ask “is that your money on the floor?” while the other grabs your stuff, or too talkative “players” will sit beside you and jabber to attract attention, while their partner grabs your stuff, or hits the payout button and walks away with your ticket. Believe me. This happens. They are very smooth and fast, so just be aware.
When you accumulate a couple winning tickets, hide them in your wallet or purse until you are ready to cash them, and then put the money. Remember the bit “walk”?
Men: it is degrading to wear a trash bag. Okay, if you do not want, then fold your bills and keep them in a front trouser pocket. If they “pickpocket” the portfolio with all your credit cards in it at least you’ll have your money, or vice versa, just keep them separate. And look at those tickets.
If you do hit a jackpot of good size, take the money from the safe in your room or take the hotel desk for safekeeping. Or, request a security escort in the room or car. I am happy to provide this service. Do not walk around the casino or streets with a big wad of money!
Security in all the hotels and casinos is excellent. With all those thousands of cameras (Eyes in the sky) every inch of the casino is recorded continuously. (Did you know that Nevada law requires casinos to have this level of security?) Is for your protection as well as the Hotel / Casino.
Now please understand, we’re not trying to scare you away here, but just to let you know! And ‘real easy to get caught up in all the lights are flashing, noise, shows the head, people watching and normal distractions of a casino. Just do not give them the opportunity to spoil the fun.
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Buckingham Palace has a history stretching back over 500 years and has changed hands several times, but still part of the building that remains standing today is the original structure built in the early 1700′s. Just as the building has changed and developed since the early 1700?
In principle Buckingham Palace was originally known as Buckingham House. However in 1762 George III liked the house, so that led him to € 28,000 and renamed Queen’s House. The reason for this was the fact that he brought the house to give to his wife Charlotte. Shortly after this work has started early, in order to renovate the house with the help of Sir William Chambers. This trend continued with the accession of George IV in 1820 when he decided to rebuild the house, but he still used for the same purpose as his father did.
One of the biggest physical changes to the house was not the case a few years later, when the king had a change of mentality. It ‘was in 1826 that King George IV set to turn the house into what is known today, Buckingham Palace. He did so with the help of an architect known as John Nash.
The work that Nash carried out involved the doubling of the size of the main block by adding a new suite of rooms overlooking the garden facing west. He then dealt with this soft Bath stone, which reflects the influence of French neo-classical, favored by George IV. Many of the rooms Nash added that today virtually unchanged.
Another big change for the building took place in 1837, on the other hand this change was the main use of the building. I refer of course to the fact Queen Victoria was the first monarch to take up residence in July 1837. Since that decision was taken on the building continued to be the home of the British monarchy over the years and during these years continued to be changed and reshaped, as in 1913, when the decision was made to rectify the facade.
Sir Aston Webb created a new design, involving Portland Stone. This took 12 months to prepare before any construction work began after the construction work was started it took 13 weeks to complete. This process involved removing the old stone and rebuilding it. Even the gates and railings that are around Buckingham Palace were built in 1911. This means that all major work was completed before the First World War in 1914.
Today Buckingham Palace
The building as it stands today, it acts not only as the London residence of Her Majesty the Queen, but also as the administrative headquarters of the Royal House. And ‘one of the few buildings that remain in the real working world today. The state rooms have been extensively used by the Queen and members of the Royal Family as a way to receive and entertain guests on occasions of state, ceremonial and official.
About 50,000 visitors each year are held at Palace garden parties, receptions, banquets and the public. However it is not only invited guests who get to see inside the building. In August and September visits to the Queen in Scotland and in this period of nineteen rooms in the palace are open to visitors.
Buckingham Palace is a huge tourist attraction and is a lot of British history. It is a monument that has been around for 500 years and will continue to be here long into the future, but will be here for as long as the British Monarchy. The above is the story of the building, but this will only continue to grow until the building is located.
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All our efforts aside, Americans still use 35 billion gallons of drinking water per day. Toilets, kitchens, and the landscape are the three areas most water-intensive, and most of the restaurants are all 3! You might be surprised how many water utility companies to provide water conservation tips, often on their websites.
There is a mountain of information out there for the restaurateur who wants to train employees to practice conservation. Most of the suggestions are simply typical way, few are truly inventive. Some of the following types have been adapted from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority in Boston.
KITCHEN AND SERVICE AREAS:
Turn off the “continuous flow” characteristic of the drain pan on the coffee / milk / soda beverage island. Thoroughly clean as required. Many newer devices have special use of water under the Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. For example, new commercial dish machines have perfected designs that take the use of water well below one gallon per rack.
Beware of new water-saving devices, such as the design of nozzles, and energy-saving features-washing, use water can be reduced by up to 50 percent. On older machines, check the manufacturer’s instructions to see if the machine heads spray plate could be reduced to those with low flow. Do your thawing food and utensils presoaking in tanks or ponds for drinking water, no running water.
Better yet, allow for thawing several times in refrigeration, so you do not have to use water to accelerate the procedure. Boilerless steamers are the equipment of choice for water conservation. Adjust production equipment to make and distribute ice unless the ice is much less when necessary. The biggest mistake is buying an ice machine that is too small or just the right format for the task, simply because the ice machines running on an economy of scale: the larger the machine, the more efficient execution.
If the operation has a machine that overproduces, can simply be put on a timer and set to be during peak hours (when drinking water or electricity rates are cheaper) and out throughout peak hours.
Repair leaky toilets and faucets. A leaky toilet can waste 50 gallons of drinking water per day, a dripping tap can waste a minimum of 75 liters per week. Install aerators, spring loaded valves, electronic sensors or timers on all faucets. Replace worn-out fixtures with water-saving ones. Apply water conservation stickers on mirrors to remind employees and customers.
One inch of water per week is sufficient to support an established lawn or landscape. precipitation gauge, and only increase the water like a lot as it is required to equal one inch per week. This means that the monitoring of the irrigation program, what is required in summer is not the same in the fall, for example.
After a heavy rain, wait at least 10 days for drinking water again.
Do not water too much wind, rain, or hot days, when the water evaporates than reaches the landscape. Investigate a program of drip irrigation for flowers, shrubs and new plantings. Drip irrigation saves 30 to 70 percent of water used by an irrigation system overhead. Sweep sidewalks, loading docks and parking lots instead of casting down.
The capital of water-guzzling United States is Las Vegas, with its massive (and highly scenic), casino, backyard swimming pools, green boulevards and turning what was deserted. Las Vegas uses about 325 gallons of water each day. At this rate, the region is expected to run out by mid-2030s, according to some experts.
the city’s hotel industry is finally embracing conservation measures, water saving taps from a lawn-watering restrictions, new types of technology for water purification. These individual efforts matter? Apparently so. Within a year, water consumption in Las Vegas was decreased by 13 percent.
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